Rock art was created by innovative creators using a wide range of methods and materials. One way was through pecking the stone with tools to give it a rough, pitted surface. Rubbing or wearing down the stone was used to create lines.
Symbols and images could be incised, gouged out in intaglio technique, chipped out with a stone, sculpted, overpainted or crosshatched.
Some rock art was painted with charcoal and earth pigments mixed with grease, gum, or water. Often, engraving and painting techniques were sometimes combined.